If you want to draw the human body accurately, what do you do? You study the human body—its anatomy and so on. The same goes for Logo design. In the past I have designed logo here and there without much knowledge or understanding. Especially the knowledge of what makes up a logo! Here’s a great article, short and to the point, that walks you through the three parts that make up a logo.
Knowing its parts allows you to communicate better and to analyze and study it in greater depth. “Make the logo a bit bigger” (confusing) vs “Increase the size of the logomark a bit and bold the logotype. Also, remove the slogan.” (more specific).
And then we have the types of a logo. Logomark only such as Apple, Nike? How about Logotype only such as facebook, Disney and SONY?